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Government and Institutions of Monaco

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign state, recognized by all national and international jurisdictions. The foundation of the organization of the state is its Constitution as of December 17, 1962, which defines the character of the form of government as being a hereditary constitutional monarchy. This means that the monarch’s power is not absolute, but is executed within the framework of the Constitution. The crown passes to the direct legal heirs based on the age criterion according to male-preference cognatic primogeniture.

The Prince decides on a number of matters in conjunction with the authorized council assemblies, such as the Crown Council (state matters related to signing of international treaties, amnesties, naturalization requests), the National Council (rulings on draft laws and executive orders), the Economic Council, and the Social Council.

Government of Monaco

The Ministry of State jointly with the Council of Government, which consists of five members appointed by the Prince, direct the executive branch, while the Sovereign Prince of Monaco is the head of state. As of today the Council consists of:

– The Department of the Interior Affairs: the matters relating to education, youth and sport, public security (police) and civil institutions, culture, and civil defense. The Departments also provides for the control and security of the activity of the associations’, federations, and funds, as well as of the relations with the representatives of all religious agencies in Monaco. In other words, most likely it is important for you to know that the officers of this Department decide whether you are going to receive residency in the Principality, and what state schools your children will have to go to in Monaco.

– Department of Finance and Economy decides on the matters of budget, treasury, economics and trade, tourism, housing, state property in the department use; controls gambling, and finance channels; develops innovation and modern technologies in the Principality. If you are going to have a commercial activity present in the Principality, the authorities of this Department will provide for the permits and entities’ registration.

-Department for Social Affairs and Health: employment, labor relations, workplace health and safety, social security, public health, insurance, social services, healthcare, family, elderly, handicapped. The Principality has high social welfare tax rates, and the employer pays 35% to the social services for his or her employees. At the same time, the tax money is wisely spent. The quality of the services offered by the local healthcare facilities and the Princess Grace Hospital is considered high.

– Department for Equipment, Environment and Urban Planning: facilities, urban development, housing construction, environmental protection, green areas and life standards, security of the state property in the department use, land, sea, and air public transport, utilities, and public services.

– Department for Foreign Relations: everything pertaining to the diplomatic relations of Monaco with the other countries.

Legislative Branch

The Prince and the National Council jointly represent the legislative branch, while the former has the right to initiate and ratify the laws. The twenty-four members of the Council are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. They adopt laws and vote the state budget.

Judiciary of the Principality

The judicial branch rests in the hands of the Prince, who passes the full rights to its execution to the courts and tribunals, which administer justice on His behalf. There is no Minister of Justice position in the Principality, and there are different types of courts: the trial court, Supreme tribunal, Appellate court, and revision court. Criminal court is the jury panel. Death penalty was abolished in Monaco in 1962.

The Municipal Council, headed by the Mayor, plays an important part in the everyday life of the Principality. Among the matters that the Municipality decides are: facilities for children and the elderly organization; city events and holidays; cultural and art events; sport development and municipal swimming pools management; issuing of civil status documents. The Municipality is also responsible for the gardens, parks, and the green areas of the Principality.

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